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The Hodgkin–Huxley model of an action potential in the squid giant axon has been the basis for much of the current understanding of the ionic bases of action potentials.Briefly, the model states that the generation of an action potential is determined by two ions: Na and K .

In the human brain alone, there are over eighty billion neurons.Plastic change often results from the alteration of the number of neurotransmitter receptors located on a synapse.There are several underlying mechanisms that cooperate to achieve synaptic plasticity, including changes in the quantity of neurotransmitters released into a synapse and changes in how effectively cells respond to those neurotransmitters.Several techniques such as intracellular recording, patch-clamp, and voltage-clamp technique, pharmacology, confocal imaging, molecular biology, two photon laser scanning microscopy and Ca2 imaging have been used to study activity at the cellular level.Cellular neuroscience examines the various types of neurons, the functions of different neurons, the influence of neurons upon each other, how neurons work together.

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